Scaling Up I: Large Codebase

As soon as your bot grows in complexity, you are going to face the challenge of how to structure your application code base. Naturally, you can split it across files.

Possible Solution

grammY is still pretty young and does not provide any official integrations with DI containers yet. Subscribe to @grammyjs_newsopen in new window to be notified as soon as we support this.

You are free to structure your code however you like, and there is no one-size-fits-all solution. That being said, a straightforward and proven strategy to structure your code is the following.

  1. Group things that semantically belong together in the same file (or, depending on the code size, directory). Every single one of these parts exposes middleware that will handle the designated messages.
  2. Create a bot instance centrally that merges all middleware by installing it onto the bot.
  3. (Optional.) Pre-filter the updates centrally, and send down updates the right way only. You may also want to check out bot.route (API Referenceopen in new window) or alternatively the router plugin for that.

A runnable example that implements the above strategy can be found in the Example Bot repositoryopen in new window.

Example Structure

For a very simple bot that manages a TODO list, you could imagine this structure.

src/
├── bot.ts
└── todo/
    ├── item.ts
    └── list.ts

item.ts just defines some stuff about TODO items, and these code parts are used in list.ts.

In list.ts, you would then do something like this:

export const lists = new Composer();

// Register some handlers here that handle your middleware the usual way.
lists.on("message", (ctx) => {/* ... */});

Optionally, you can use an error boundary to handle all errors that happen inside your module.

Now, in bot.ts, you can install this module like so:

import { lists } from "./todo/list";

const bot = new Bot("<token>");

bot.use(lists);
// ... maybe more modules like `todo` here

bot.start();

Optionally, you can use the router plugin or to bundle up the different modules, if you’re able to determine which middleware is responsible upfront.

However, remember that the exact way of how to structure your bot is very hard to say generically. As always in software, do it in a way that makes the most sense 😉

Type Definitions for Extracted Middleware

The above structure using composers works well. However, sometimes you may find yourself in the situation that you want to extract a handler into a function, rather than creating a new composer and adding the logic to it. This requires you to add the correct middleware type definitions to your handlers because they can no longer be inferred through the composer.

grammY exports type definitions for all narrowed types of middleware, such as the middleware that you can pass to command handlers. In addition, it exports the type definitions for the narrowed context objects that are being used in that middleware. Both types are parameterized with your custom context object. Hence, a command handler would have the type CommandMiddleware<MyContext> and its context object CommandContext<MyContext>. They can be used as follows.

import {
  type CallbackQueryMiddleware,
  type CommandContext,
  type NextFunction,
} from "grammy";

function commandMiddleware(ctx: CommandContext<MyContext>, next: NextFunction) {
  // command handling
}
const callbackQueryMiddleware: CallbackQueryMiddleware<MyContext> = (ctx) => {
  // callback query handling
};

bot.command(["start", "help"], commandMiddleware);
bot.callbackQuery("query-data", callbackQueryMiddleware);
import {
  type CallbackQueryMiddleware,
  type CommandContext,
  type NextFunction,
} from "https://deno.land/x/grammy@v1.11.1/mod.ts";

function commandMiddleware(ctx: CommandContext<MyContext>, next: NextFunction) {
  // command handling
}
const callbackQueryMiddleware: CallbackQueryMiddleware<MyContext> = (ctx) => {
  // callback query handling
};

bot.command(["start", "help"], commandMiddleware);
bot.callbackQuery("query-data", callbackQueryMiddleware);

Check out the type aliases API referenceopen in new window to see an overview over all type aliases that grammY exports.