Router (router)

The Router class (API Referenceopen in new window) provides a way to structure your bot by routing context objects to different parts of your code. It is a more sophisticated version of bot.route on Composer (grammY API Referenceopen in new window).

Example

Here is an example of a router usage that speaks for itself.

const router = new Router((ctx) => {
  // Determine route to pick here.
  return "key";
});

router.route("key", (ctx) => {/* ... */});
router.route("other-key", (ctx) => {/* ... */});
router.otherwise((ctx) => {/* ... */}); // called if no route matches

bot.use(router);

Integration With Middleware

Naturally, the router plugin integrates seamlessly with grammY’s middleware trees. For example, you filter down updates further after routing them.

router.route("key").on("message:text", (ctx) => {/* ... */});

const other = router.otherwise();
other.on(":text", (ctx) => {/* ... */});
other.use((ctx) => {/* ... */});

You may also want to revisit this section about combining middleware handlers.

Combining Routers With Sessions

Routers work well together with sessions. As an example, combining the two concepts allows you to re-create forms in the chat interface.

Let’s say that you want to build a bot that tells users how many days are left until it is their birthday. In order to compute the number of days, the bot has to know the month (e.g. June) and the day of month (e.g. 15) of the birthday.

The bot therefore has to ask two questions:

  1. In what month is the user born?
  2. What day of the month is the user born?

Only if both values are known, the bot can tell the user how many days are left.

This is how a bot like that could be implemented:

import { Bot, Context, Keyboard, session, SessionFlavor } from "grammy";
import { Router } from "@grammyjs/router";

interface SessionData {
  step: "idle" | "day" | "month"; // which step of the form we are on
  dayOfMonth?: number; // day of birthday
  month?: number; // month of birthday
}
type MyContext = Context & SessionFlavor<SessionData>;

const bot = new Bot<MyContext>("");

// Use session.
bot.use(session({ initial: (): SessionData => ({ step: "idle" }) }));

// Define some commands.
bot.command("start", async (ctx) => {
  await ctx.reply(`Welcome!
I can tell you in how many days it is your birthday!
Send /birthday to start`);
});

bot.command("birthday", async (ctx) => {
  const day = ctx.session.dayOfMonth;
  const month = ctx.session.month;
  if (day !== undefined && month !== undefined) {
    // Information already provided!
    await ctx.reply(`Your birthday is in ${getDays(month, day)} days!`);
  } else {
    // Missing information, enter router-based form
    ctx.session.step = "day";
    await ctx.reply(
"Please send me the day of month \
of your birthday as a number!",
    );
  }
});

// Use router.
const router = new Router<MyContext>((ctx) => ctx.session.step);

// Define step that handles the day.
const day = router.route("day");
day.on("message:text", async (ctx) => {
  const day = parseInt(ctx.msg.text, 10);
  if (isNaN(day) || day < 1 || 31 < day) {
    await ctx.reply("That is not a valid day, try again!");
    return;
  }
  ctx.session.dayOfMonth = day;
  // Advance form to step for month
  ctx.session.step = "month";
  await ctx.reply("Got it! Now, send me the month!", {
    reply_markup: {
      one_time_keyboard: true,
      keyboard: new Keyboard()
        .text("Jan").text("Feb").text("Mar").row()
        .text("Apr").text("May").text("Jun").row()
        .text("Jul").text("Aug").text("Sep").row()
        .text("Oct").text("Nov").text("Dec").build(),
    },
  });
});
day.use((ctx) => ctx.reply("Please send me the day as a text message!"));

// Define step that handles the month.
const month = router.route("month");
month.on("message:text", async (ctx) => {
  // Should not happen, unless session data is corrupted.
  const day = ctx.session.dayOfMonth;
  if (day === undefined) {
    await ctx.reply("I need your day of month!");
    ctx.session.step = "day";
    return;
  }

  const month = months.indexOf(ctx.msg.text);
  if (month === -1) {
    await ctx.reply(
"That is not a valid month, \
please use one of the buttons!",
    );
    return;
  }

  ctx.session.month = month;
  const diff = getDays(month, day);
  await ctx.reply(
    `Your birthday is on ${months[month]} ${day}.
That is in ${diff} days!`,
    { reply_markup: { remove_keyboard: true } },
  );
  ctx.session.step = "idle";
});
month.use((ctx) => ctx.reply("Please tap one of the buttons!"));

// Define step that handles all other cases.
router.otherwise(async (ctx) => { // idle
  await ctx.reply("Send /birthday to find out how long you have to wait.");
});

bot.use(router); // register the router
bot.start();

// Date conversion utils
const months = [
  "Jan",
  "Feb",
  "Mar",
  "Apr",
  "May",
  "Jun",
  "Jul",
  "Aug",
  "Sep",
  "Oct",
  "Nov",
  "Dec",
];
function getDays(month: number, day: number) {
  const bday = new Date();
  const now = Date.now();
  bday.setMonth(month);
  bday.setDate(day);
  if (bday.getTime() < now) bday.setFullYear(bday.getFullYear() + 1);
  const diff = (bday.getTime() - now) / (1000 * 60 * 60 * 24);
  return diff;
}
const { Bot, Context, Keyboard, session, SessionFlavor } = require("grammy");
const { Router } = require("@grammyjs/router");

const bot = new Bot("");

// Use session.
bot.use(session({ initial: () => ({ step: "idle" }) }));

// Define some commands.
bot.command("start", async (ctx) => {
  await ctx.reply(`Welcome!
I can tell you in how many days it is your birthday!
Send /birthday to start`);
});

bot.command("birthday", async (ctx) => {
  const day = ctx.session.dayOfMonth;
  const month = ctx.session.month;
  if (day !== undefined && month !== undefined) {
    // Information already provided!
    await ctx.reply(`Your birthday is in ${getDays(month, day)} days!`);
  } else {
    // Missing information, enter router-based form
    ctx.session.step = "day";
    await ctx.reply(
"Please send me the day of month \
of your birthday as a number!",
    );
  }
});

// Use router.
const router = new Router((ctx) => ctx.session.step);

// Define step that handles the day.
const day = router.route("day");
day.on("message:text", async (ctx) => {
  const day = parseInt(ctx.msg.text, 10);
  if (isNaN(day) || day < 1 || 31 < day) {
    await ctx.reply("That is not a valid day, try again!");
    return;
  }
  ctx.session.dayOfMonth = day;
  // Advance form to step for month
  ctx.session.step = "month";
  await ctx.reply("Got it! Now, send me the month!", {
    reply_markup: {
      one_time_keyboard: true,
      keyboard: new Keyboard()
        .text("Jan").text("Feb").text("Mar").row()
        .text("Apr").text("May").text("Jun").row()
        .text("Jul").text("Aug").text("Sep").row()
        .text("Oct").text("Nov").text("Dec").build(),
    },
  });
});
day.use((ctx) => ctx.reply("Please send me the day as a text message!"));

// Define step that handles the month.
const month = router.route("month");
month.on("message:text", async (ctx) => {
  // Should not happen, unless session data is corrupted.
  const day = ctx.session.dayOfMonth;
  if (day === undefined) {
    await ctx.reply("I need your day of month!");
    ctx.session.step = "day";
    return;
  }

  const month = months.indexOf(ctx.msg.text);
  if (month === -1) {
    await ctx.reply(
"That is not a valid month, \
please use one of the buttons!",
    );
    return;
  }

  ctx.session.month = month;
  const diff = getDays(month, day);
  await ctx.reply(
    `Your birthday is on ${months[month]} ${day}.
That is in ${diff} days!`,
    { reply_markup: { remove_keyboard: true } },
  );
  ctx.session.step = "idle";
});
month.use((ctx) => ctx.reply("Please tap one of the buttons!"));

// Define step that handles all other cases.
router.otherwise(async (ctx) => { // idle
  await ctx.reply("Send /birthday to find out how long you have to wait.");
});

bot.use(router); // register the router
bot.start();

// Date conversion utils
const months = [
  "Jan",
  "Feb",
  "Mar",
  "Apr",
  "May",
  "Jun",
  "Jul",
  "Aug",
  "Sep",
  "Oct",
  "Nov",
  "Dec",
];
function getDays(month, day) {
  const bday = new Date();
  const now = Date.now();
  bday.setMonth(month);
  bday.setDate(day);
  if (bday.getTime() < now) bday.setFullYear(bday.getFullYear() + 1);
  const diff = (bday.getTime() - now) / (1000 * 60 * 60 * 24);
  return diff;
}
import {
  Bot,
  Context,
  Keyboard,
  session,
  SessionFlavor,
} from "https://deno.land/x/grammy@v1.11.1/mod.ts";
import { Router } from "https://deno.land/x/grammy_router@v2.0.0/router.ts";

interface SessionData {
  step: "idle" | "day" | "month"; // which step of the form we are on
  dayOfMonth?: number; // day of birthday
  month?: number; // month of birthday
}
type MyContext = Context & SessionFlavor<SessionData>;

const bot = new Bot<MyContext>("");

// Use session.
bot.use(session({ initial: (): SessionData => ({ step: "idle" }) }));

// Define some commands.
bot.command("start", async (ctx) => {
  await ctx.reply(`Welcome!
I can tell you in how many days it is your birthday!
Send /birthday to start`);
});

bot.command("birthday", async (ctx) => {
  const day = ctx.session.dayOfMonth;
  const month = ctx.session.month;
  if (day !== undefined && month !== undefined) {
    // Information already provided!
    await ctx.reply(`Your birthday is in ${getDays(month, day)} days!`);
  } else {
    // Missing information, enter router-based form
    ctx.session.step = "day";
    await ctx.reply(
"Please send me the day of month \
of your birthday as a number!",
    );
  }
});

// Use router.
const router = new Router<MyContext>((ctx) => ctx.session.step);

// Define step that handles the day.
const day = router.route("day");
day.on("message:text", async (ctx) => {
  const day = parseInt(ctx.msg.text, 10);
  if (isNaN(day) || day < 1 || 31 < day) {
    await ctx.reply("That is not a valid day, try again!");
    return;
  }
  ctx.session.dayOfMonth = day;
  // Advance form to step for month
  ctx.session.step = "month";
  await ctx.reply("Got it! Now, send me the month!", {
    reply_markup: {
      one_time_keyboard: true,
      keyboard: new Keyboard()
        .text("Jan").text("Feb").text("Mar").row()
        .text("Apr").text("May").text("Jun").row()
        .text("Jul").text("Aug").text("Sep").row()
        .text("Oct").text("Nov").text("Dec").build(),
    },
  });
});
day.use((ctx) => ctx.reply("Please send me the day as a text message!"));

// Define step that handles the month.
const month = router.route("month");
month.on("message:text", async (ctx) => {
  // Should not happen, unless session data is corrupted.
  const day = ctx.session.dayOfMonth;
  if (day === undefined) {
    await ctx.reply("I need your day of month!");
    ctx.session.step = "day";
    return;
  }

  const month = months.indexOf(ctx.msg.text);
  if (month === -1) {
    await ctx.reply(
"That is not a valid month, \
please use one of the buttons!",
    );
    return;
  }

  ctx.session.month = month;
  const diff = getDays(month, day);
  await ctx.reply(
    `Your birthday is on ${months[month]} ${day}.
That is in ${diff} days!`,
    { reply_markup: { remove_keyboard: true } },
  );
  ctx.session.step = "idle";
});
month.use((ctx) => ctx.reply("Please tap one of the buttons!"));

// Define step that handles all other cases.
router.otherwise(async (ctx) => { // idle
  await ctx.reply("Send /birthday to find out how long you have to wait.");
});

bot.use(router); // register the router
bot.start();

// Date conversion utils
const months = [
  "Jan",
  "Feb",
  "Mar",
  "Apr",
  "May",
  "Jun",
  "Jul",
  "Aug",
  "Sep",
  "Oct",
  "Nov",
  "Dec",
];
function getDays(month: number, day: number) {
  const bday = new Date();
  const now = Date.now();
  bday.setMonth(month);
  bday.setDate(day);
  if (bday.getTime() < now) bday.setFullYear(bday.getFullYear() + 1);
  const diff = (bday.getTime() - now) / (1000 * 60 * 60 * 24);
  return diff;
}

Note how the session has a property step that stores the step of the form, i.e. which value is currently being filled. The router is used to jump between different middleware that completes both the month and the dayOfMonth fields on the session. If both values are known, the bot computes the remaining days and sends it back to the user.

Plugin Summary